Key Conditions

Key conditions are the core conditions that the Paediatric Undergraduate and Clerkship Directors of Canada (PUPDOC) felt are essential for graduating medical students to know. The Key Conditions are neither a differential diagnosis nor a clinical approach. They highlight conditions that may be unique to paediatrics, that are essential, or that are common. Key Conditions can present in a number of ways – each is listed as under the most common Clinical Presentation.

Clinical Approach

Clinical approaches represent one of many methods to think through a clinical presentation, and narrow down a differential diagnosis. There are many conditions that can present with similar symptomatology. These presentations are not meant to contain an exhaustive list of differential diagnoses, but rather outline how to think through patient signs and symptoms, and understand some of the most common and important Paediatric conditions. There are many different ways to approach any clinical presentation, and these approaches are not meant to replace clinical judgement.


A 15 year old boy is brought to medical attention due to headaches that have been worsening over the last 2 to 3 weeks



Lecture materials and small group cases are posted here for University of Calgary Cumming School of Medicine students. Access to these materials are password protected.


Small Groups

  • Neurology Course 6
  • Tumours and Bleeds Course 5


Lecture materials and small group cases are posted here for University of Calgary Cumming School of Medicine students. Access to these materials are password protected.


By the end of the Paediatric Clerkship, a medical student will be able to:

1. Explain the pathophysiology, and clinically recognize the signs and symptoms, of increased intracranial pressure.

2. Recognize the clinical features and propose a management plan for patients with concussion.

3. Recognize the clinical features of a migraine headache and a brain tumor.

Half Day Cases

  • A 13 year old girl has developed recurrent headaches. The headaches have been going on for 6 months, and are preventing her from going to school
  • A 7 year old child has been complaining of severe headaches that are worse in the morning than the evening. The headaches have been worsening over the last 2 weeks, and in the last 4 days has started vomiting
  • A 12 year old sustained a head injury during soccer practice. She was brought in to the emergency department at the time and told that she has a concussion. She comes to your office now, and the family is wondering when she can return to school and start playing soccer again.


The following resources have been reviewed and collated by canuc-paeds. These resources are aimed to provide information at the level of the medical student. These include overviews of topics, clinical resources, and useful guidelines that contain relevant materials.


  • Evaluation and management of children and adolescents with sports related concussion . Canadian Pediatric Society Position Statement (2012, 2014).
    ; .
  • Pediatric Headache: A Review. Blume HK.
    ; Pediatrics in Review 2012; 33: 562-576. .
    Good and clear review article.  Epidemiology of headaches, patterns of headache (nice graph), primary headache syndromes, secondary headaches, substances that can cause headaches, headaches in systemic disease, evaluation of headache, red flags and neuroimaging studies. Management of headaches.


No videos.